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English Stylistics Class 2013. Simile, metaphor, metonymy and personification

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On the last lesson we discussed themes such as simile, metaphor, personification and metonymy. I want to tell about them. Let's start with a simile. A simile is comparison. Each simile consists of the following three components: 1) the tenor; 2) the vehicle; 3) link-words, such as “like, as, as though, as like, such as, as … as, as if, seem”, etc. So we can define and compare example: My Mama moved among the days like a dreamwalker in a field. (L. Clifton).

Metaphor. A metaphor is a word or expression used in a figurative sense. “Her voice is music to his ears.” (It is implied that he is always happy to hear her voice.). What is the difference between a metaphor and simile? 1) Life is a journey. 2) Life is like a journey. First example is metaphor and second is simile, because the comparison indicates that the word "like".

Metonymy. The turn of the speech, in which instead of the name of one of the subject is given the name of the other. "I spent the evening reading Shakespeare" (Shakespeare serves as metonymies, substitution of "of Shakespeare's work”).

Personification is giving human traits (qualities, feelings, action, or characteristics) to non-living objects (things, colors, qualities, or ideas). 
For example: The window winked at me. (The verb, wink, is a human action. A window is a non-living object). The rain kissed my cheeks as it fell.

 

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