Channel: Последние записи в сообществах | Блог-платформа Your Vision
Viewing all articles
Browse latest Browse all 16277

English Stylistics Class 2013. Epithet, euphemism, hyperbole and understatement.


What is an epithet?

epithet is a word or phrase which is used to characterize a person or thing.

Shakespearean Epithets
Thou mad mustachio purple-hued maltworms!
Thou puking knotty-pated lout!
Thou beslubbering swag-bellied ratsbane!
Thou roguish tickle-brained fustilarian!


To make an unpleasant word or expression sound politically and morally right and look less offensive, euphemism was invented. This figure of speech can be best defined as coded words or phrases, which we use to express ourselves when caught in an awkward situation, without sounding uncivil or being downright vague. Euphemism is one figure of speech that camouflages direct, unfriendly or disagreeable expressions with more pleasant and ethically correct words or phrases. The word euphemism originated from the Greek word "euphemia" meaning "the use of words of good omen." They are deemed as secret means or spies on a delicate task, which easily go in the tense environment without making the situation worse

Euphemisms To Speak Politely And Courteously
Fat - chubby, full-figured, plump, voluptuous, overweight, big boned
Remedial - special needs, developmental
Poor - underprivileged, unable to make ends meet, modest, financially embarrassed
Handicapped - physically challenged, disables, differently abled, crippled
Homeless - displaced, dispossessed, adrift
Military Attack - armed intervention, collateral damage
Bathroom - be excused, restroom, public conveniences
Unemployed - between the jobs
Vomit - blow chunks, lose your lunch
Pregnant - bun in oven, in the club, in the family way
Bankrupt - in reduced circumstances
Blush - color up
Lying - economical with the truth
Lover - gentleman friend
Illegitimate - the wrong side of the blanket
Drunk - tired and over-emotional
Short-sighted - visually challenged
Arguments - full and frank discussion, have words with someone
Junk mail - direct mail
Wiretapping and bugging - electronic surveillance
Eliminating people from racial or national backgrounds - ethnic cleansing
Penalty - disincentive
Defecate - do your business
Intercourse - hankie pankie
Sick - indisposed


What is a hyperbole?

Hyperbole is one of the most widely used figures of speech in everyday language, in literature or even in love poems. It is an effective communication tool that is used to catch the attention, to emphasize a contrast or even to deceive of idea of the reader

Hyperbole Examples From Poems
"By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood
And fired the shot heard round the world."
By Ralph Waldo Emerson from "The Concord Hymn"
"I'll love you, dear, I'll love you
Till China and Africa meet,
And the river jumps over the mountain
And the salmon sing in the street,
I'll love you till the ocean
Is folded and hung up to dry
And the seven stars go squawking
Like geese about the sky."
By W.H. Auden on Endless Love "As I Walked Out One Evening," 1935

What is understatement?

Understatement is a figure of speech in which there is a contrast between the description and reality. As such, understatement can be used to reflect modesty, sarcasm, derogatory or complimentary tone. Understatement literally refers to what is not being said. In short, the gravity of the statement is undervalued

Examples Of Understatement
"It's a bit yellow" - while describing a very yellow canary.
"There is some music by Beethoven in his Ninth Symphony" - while describing Beethoven's famous work.
"The desert is sometimes dry and sandy" - While describing the driest desert in the world.
"It is just a little cool today" - when the temperature outside is 5° below zero.
"The food was tolerable" - on the food that was prepared by the best chef in the world.
"The cars drove at a fair clip" - while watching a car race.
"I know a little about running a company" - comment by a successful businessman.
"I think we have slightly different opinions on this topic" - instead of saying "I don't agree with you at all.
"It was ok" - when a top ranker was asked about his exam results.
"I wouldn't say he was thin" - describing a very obese person.
"He is a little on the old side" - describing a very old person.


Viewing all articles
Browse latest Browse all 16277

Latest Images

Trending Articles

Latest Images